Ok, we've looked at the question of whether somebody is providing investment advice, and whether that somebody receives compensation as a result of it. What, then, do the regulators mean when they ask, "Is the person in the business of providing investment advice?" ? In SEC Release IA-1092, the regulators state that, "Under section 202(a)(11), an investment adviser is one who, for compensation, (1) engages in the business of advising others as to the value of securities or as to the advisability of investing in, purchasing, or selling securities, or, alternatively, (2) issues or promulgates reports or analyses concerning securities as part of a regular business. Each of these two alternatives in the statutory definition of investment adviser contains a business test -- one involves 'engaging in the business' of advising others while the other involves issuing reports about securities as 'part of a regular business.' While the business standards established under Section 202(a)(11) are phrased somewhat differently, it is the staff's opinion that they should be interpreted in the same manner." As the release then states, "The giving of advice need not constitute the principal business activity or any particular portion of the business activities of a person in order for the person to be an investment adviser under Section 202(a)(11). The giving of advice need only be done on such a basis that it constitutes a business activity occurring with some regularity. The frequency of the activity is a factor, but is not determinative." Okay, what the heck does that mean? It means that there is really no objective standard whatsoever used to determine if someone is "in the business of providing investment advice." There is no guidance based on the percentage of income the advisory services comprise of a professional's total compensation, and there is no guidance based on the frequency with which the advice is provided. As that famous judge said about pornography, he can't define it, but he knows it when he sees it. Great. Let's see what the SEC has to say next: The staff considers a person to be "in the business" of providing advice if the person: (i) holds himself out as an investment adviser or as one who provides investment advice, (ii) receives any separate or additional compensation that represents a clearly definable charge for providing advice about securities, regardless of whether the compensation is separate from or included within any overall compensation, or receives transactionbased compensation if the client implements the investment advice, or (iii) on anything other than rare, isolated and non-periodic instances, provides specific investment advice. The SEC then writes, "For the purposes of (iii) above, "specific investment advice" includes a recommendation, analysis or report about specific securities or specific categories of securities (e.g., industrial development bonds, mutual funds, or medical technology stocks). It includes a recommendation that a client allocate certain percentages of his assets to life insurance, high yielding bonds, and mutual funds or particular types of mutual funds such as growth stock funds or money market funds. However, specific investment advice does not include advice limited to a general recommendation to allocate assets in securities, life insurance, and tangible assets." In other words, good luck trying to push the edge of that envelope. As if you're going to build a career telling people that they really oughta, you know, invest in securities, life insurance, and tangible assets, but, unfortunately, that's all you can really tell them. You can't tell them which types of securities to invest in, let alone which companies they might want to invest in. Good luck getting anybody to pay your bill for that "advice," right? Also, did you notice that if you merely "hold [yourself] out as an investment adviser or as one who provides investment advice," guess what--you're an investment adviser. In other words, if you pass out business cards announcing that you are available to provide investment advice, or if you put up a billboard trying to pull in new clients, you are definitely "holding yourself out as an investment adviser." Then again, if you do NOT hold yourself out as an investment adviser and privately advise not more than 15 clients, the SEC won't make your register. The states, however, can do what they want in that case--you have an office somewhere, maybe that state will require you to register. What do you want, a clear answer? Sorry, you're dealing with the regulators here, who like everything to remain at least as clear as mud.
What if somebody is a financial planner who avoids giving specific advice on securities? The SEC explains that, "In applying the foregoing tests, the staff may consider other financial services activities offered to clients. For example, if a financial planner structures his planning so as to give only generic, non-specific investment advice as a financial planner, but then gives specific securities advice in his capacity as a registered representative of a dealer or as agent of an insurance company, the person would not be able to assert that he was not 'in the business' of giving investment advice." So, the way I read all this mumbo jumbo is that if you provide specific investment advice for compensation, and you do it more than once in a VERY great while, you are in the business of providing investment advice and will almost certainly have to register, either with the SEC or the state regulators.